KVN and VERA Array (KaVA)

Brief Summary of VERA Receiving System

Each VERA antenna has the receivers for 4 bands, which are S (2 GHz), C (6.7 GHz), X (8 GHz), K (22 GHz), and Q (43 GHz) bands. For the open use, the K band and the Q band are open for observing. The low-noise HEMT amplifiers in the K and Q bands are enclosed in the cryogenic dewar, which is cooled down to 20K, to reduce the thermal noise. The range of observable frequency and the typical receiver noise temperature () at each band are summarized in the Table 5 and Figure 5.

Table 5: Frequency range and $T_{RX}$ of VERA and KVN receivers.
Frequency Range $T_{\rm RX}{}^{a}$
Band [GHz] [K] Polarization
K 21.5-23.8 30-50 LCP
Q 42.5-44.5 70-90 LCP
K 21.25-23.25 30-40 LCP/RCP
Q 42.11-44.11 70-80 LCP/RCP
(40-50 for Ulsan)
$^a$Receiver noise temperature

After the radio frequency (RF) signals from astronomical objects are amplified by the receivers, the RF signals are mixed with standard frequency signal generated in the first local oscillator to down-convert the RF to an intermediate frequency (IF) of 4.7GHz-7GHz. The first local frequencies are fixed at 16.8GHz in the K band and at 37.5 GHz in the Q band. The IF signals are then mixed down again to the base band frequency of 0-512 MHz. The frequency of second local oscillator is tunable with a possible frequency range between 4 GHz and 7 GHz. The correction of the Doppler effect due to the earth rotation is carried out in the correlation process after the observation. Therefore, basically the second local oscillator frequency is kept to be constant during the observation. Figure 6 shows a ow diagram of these signals for VERA.

Figure 5: Receiver noise temperature for each VERA antenna. Top and bottom panels show measurements in the K and Q bands, respectively. Horizontal axis indicate an IF (intermediate frequency) at which $T_{\rm RX}$ is measured. To convert it to RF (radio frequency), add 16.8 GHz in the K band and 37.5 GHz in the Q band to the IF frequency.

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KaVA ( KVN and VERA Array )