The Tianma 65-m Telescope (hereafter Tianma65) has a shaped Cassegrain-type design with a 65-m diameter main reflector and a 6.5-m sub-reflector on Az-El mount. The main reflector consists of 1008 aluminum panels deploying an active surface control system with 1104 actuators. The prime mirror achieves a surface accuracy of about 0.3mm rms after compensating the gravitational deformation in real time by the active surface control system. The secondary mirror has a surface error of 0.1 mm rms. A rotatable receiver cabin with the feeds covering frequency range from S-band (2 GHz) to Q-band is mounted at the Cassegrain focus, while the L-band (1.6 GHz) feed is off focus mount separately. The slewing rates of the main reflector are 0.5◦/sec in azimuth and 0.3◦/sec in elevation, as shown in Table 2.
The aperture efficiency of Tianma65 is above 50% at both K- and Q-bands with the active surface control system (see Table 3). The main reflector panels were assembled to give the maximum surface accuracy at the elevation angle of 52◦. The antenna efficiency goes down to less than 10% at low (< 10◦) and high (> 80◦) elevation angles, mainly due to the gravitational deformation. The active surface control system is used for compensating the gravitational effect at different elevation angles, making the gain curves as a constant over the elevation. Figure 3 shows the elevation dependence of the aperture efficiency at Q-band with or without the active surface control. The active surface control system is set 'ON' by default at K- and Q-band observations.
Dual-beam receivers are installed in Tianma65 at both K- and Q-bands. These two beams have a flxed separation angle of 140 arcsec at K-band and 100 arcsec at Q-band. One of the beams is placed at the antenna focus for VLBI observations. Typical sidelobe levels are 13-15dB at both K- and Q-bands. The measured beam sizes (HPBW) are listed in Table 3.
|Figure 3: Elevation dependence of the aperture efficiency (ηeff) for Tianma telescope at Q-band. The red and blue colors represent ηeff with or without the active surface control, respectively.|
|Driving axis||Driving range||Max. driving speed||Max. driving acceleration|
|AZa||-60◦ ~ 510◦||0.3◦/sec||0.3◦/sec2|
|EL||12◦ ~ 80◦||0.3◦/sec||0.3◦/sec2|
|AZa||-60◦ ~ 425◦||0.5◦/sec||0.27◦/sec2|
|EL||8◦ ~ 88◦||0.3◦/sec||0.16◦/sec2|
|AZa||-90◦ ~ 450◦||2.1◦/sec||2.1◦/sec2|
|EL||5◦ ~ 85◦||2.1◦/sec||2.1◦/sec2|
|FRa||-270◦ ~ 270◦||3.1◦/sec||3.1◦/sec2|
|AZa||-90◦ ~ 450◦||3.0◦/sec||3.0◦/sec2|
|EL||5◦ ~ 85◦||3.0◦/sec||3.0◦/sec2|
aThe north is 0◦ and the east is 90◦.
bFR is 0◦ when Beam-1 is at the sky side and Beam-2 is at the ground side, and CW is positive when an antenna is seen from a target source.