Geodetic observations are performed as part of the VERA project observations to derive accurate antenna coordinates. The geodetic VLBI observations for VERA are carried out in the S/X bands and also in the K band. The S/X bands are used in the domestic experiments with the Geographical Survey Institute of Japan and the international experiments called IVS-T2. On the other hand, the K band is used in the VERA internal experiments. We obtain higher accuracy results in the K band compared with the S/X bands. The most up-to-date geodetic parameters are derived through geodetic analyses.
Non-linear post seismic movement of Mizusawa after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake continues. The position and velocity of Mizusawa is continuously 15 monitored by GPS. The coordinates in the Table 1 are provisional and will be revised with accumulation of geodetic data by GPS and VLBI.
In order to maintain the antenna position accuracy, the VERA project has three kinds of geodetic observations. The first is participation in JADE (JApanese Dynamic Earth observation by VLBI) organized by GSI (Geographical Survey Institute) and IVS-T2 session in order to link the VERA coordinates to the ITRF2008 (International Terrestrial Reference Frame 2008). Basically Mizusawa station participates in JADE nearly every month. Based on the observations for four years, the 3-dimensional positions and velocities of Mizusawa station till 09/Mar/2011 is determined with accuracies of 7-9 mm and about 1 mm/yr in ITRF2008 coordinate system. But the uncertainty of several centimeters exists in the position on and after March 11, 2011. The second kind of geodetic observations is monitoring of baseline vectors between VERA stations by internal geodetic VLBI observations. Geodetic positions of VERA antennas relative to Mizusawa antenna are measured from geodetic VLBI observations every two weeks. From polygonal fitting of the six-year geodetic results, the relative positions and velocities are obtained at the precisions of 1-2 mm and 0.8-1 mm/yr till 10/Mar/2011. The third kind is continuous GPS observations at the VERA sites for interpolating VLBI geodetic positions. Daily positions can be determined from 24 hour GPS data. The GPS observations are also used to estimate tropospheric zenith delay of each VERA site routinely. The time resolution of delay estimates is 5 minutes.
KVN antenna positions are regularly monitored using GPS and geodetic VLBI observations. The K band geodesy VLBI program between KVN and VERA has been started in 2011 (see Table 9). Current KVN antenna positions (see Table 1) are obtained from the KaVA K-band geodesy on January 24, 2014. The typical 1-sigma errors of geodetic solutions are about 0.4 cm in X, Y, and Z directions. Based on 10 epoch KaVA K-band geodetic observations from Sep. 2012 to Nov. 2014, uncertainty of KVN antenna positions are ~1.39cm at Yonsei, ~1.05cm at Ulsan and ~1.03cm at Tamna.
|Obs. Code||Obs. Date||Antenna||Note|
|r11333k||2011 Nov. 29||Ky Ku Kt Vm Vr Vs Vo||VERA+Yonsei solution was obtained|
|r11361k||2011 Dec. 27||Ky Kt Vm Vr Vs Vo||Observation failed|
|r12271k||2012 Sep. 27||Ky Ku Kt Vm Vr Vs Vo||All solutions were obtained|
|r13088k||2013 Mar. 29||Ky Ku Kt Vm Vr Vs Vo||All solutions were obtained|
|r13140k||2013 May 20||Ky Ku Kt Vm Vr Vs Vo||All solutions were obtained|
|r13251k||2013 Sep. 9||Ky Ku Kt Vm Vr Vs Vo||All solutions were obtained|
|r13313k||2013 Nov. 9||Ky Ku Kt Vm Vr Vs Vo||Yonsei solution was failed.|
|r14028k||2014 Jan. 28||Ky Ku Kt Vm Vr Vs Vo||All solutions were obtained|
|r14095k||2014 Apr. 5||Ky Ku Kt Vm Vr Vs Vo||All solutions were obtained|
|r14159k||2014 Jun. 8||Ky Ku Kt Vm Vr Vs Vo||All solutions were obtained.|
|r14246k||2014 Sep. 3||Ky Ku Kt Vm Vr Vs Vo||All solutions were obtained.|
|r14305k||2014 Nov. 1||Ky Ku Kt Vm Vr Vs Vo||All solutions were obtained.|
|r15027k||2015 Jan. 27||Ky Ku Kt Vm Vr Vs Vo||in progress|
|r15089k||2015 Mar. 30||Ky Ku Kt Vm Vr Vs Vo||in progress|
|r15151k||2015 May 31||Ky Ku Kt Vm Vr Vs Vo||in progress|
|r15242k||2015 Aug. 30||Ky Ku Kt Vm Vr Vs Vo||in progress|
|Ky, Ku, and Kt stand for Yonsei, Ulsan, and Tamna antennas in KVN, respectively.|
|Vm, Vr, Vs, and Vo represent Mizusawa, Iriki, Ishigakijima, and Ogasawara antennas in VERA, respectively.|