KVN and VERA Array


Here we briefly summarize the calibration procedure of the KaVA data. Basically, most of the post-processing calibrations are done by using the AIPS (Astronomical Image Processing System) software package developed by NRAO (National Radio Astronomical Observatory).

Delay and Bandpass Calibration

The time synchronization for each antenna is kept within 0.1 sec using GPS and high stability frequency standard provided by the hydrogen maser. To correct for clock parameter offsets with better accuracy, bright continuum sources with accurately-known positions should be observed at usually every 60-80 minutes during observations. A recommended scan length for calibrators is 5-10 minutes. This can be done by the AIPS task FRING. The calibration of frequency characteristic (bandpass calibration) can be also done based on the observation of bright continuum source. This can be done by the AIPS task BPASS.

Gain Calibration

Both VERA and KVN antennas have the chopper wheel of the hot load (black body at the room temperature), and the system noise temperature can be obtained by measuring the ratio of the sky power to the hot load power (so-called R-Sky method). Thus, the measured system noise temperature is a sum of the receiver noise temperature, spillover temperature, and contribution of the atmosphere (i.e. so-called corrected for atmospheric opacity). The hot load measurement can be made before/after any scan. Also, the sky power is continuously monitored during scans, so that one can trace the variation of the system noise temperature. The system noise temperature value can be converted to SEFD (System Equivalent Flux Density) by dividing by the antenna gain in K/Jy, which is derived from the aperture efficiency and diameter of each antenna. For the correlated data from KJCC, data (TY table) and antenna gain information (GC table) are provided with the ANTAB-readable format. KJCC makes complete version of ANTAB-readable file and provide it to PI. User support team supports PIs as appropriate. The TY and GC tables can be loaded by the AIPS task ANTAB, and these tables are converted to the SN table by the AIPS task APCAL.

Alternatively, one can calibrate the visibility amplitude by the template spectrum method, in which auto-correlation spectra of a maser source is used as the flux calibrator. This calibration procedure is made by the AIPS task ACFIT (see AIPS HELP for ACFIT for more detail).

Further correction is made for VLBI observations taken with 2-bit (4-level) sampling, for the systematic effects of non-optimal setting of the quantizer voltage thresholds. This is done by the AIPS task ACCOR. The amplitude calibrations with KaVA are accurate to 15% or better at K and Q bands.

KASI logo image

KaVA ( KVN and VERA Array )